Transoms, what they are and how they can look

This is a sort introduction to the Transom panel, the piece of glass above a door. Some doors are solid so the only way to get natural light into a space is through the transom. Here is a selected gallery of transom panels we have made at Rainbow Glass over the last 20 years or so showing a variety of styles.

Interesting Painted glass for Corpus Christi Church

A renovation of this interesting 1950’s Church in Oxford led to the commissioning of some painted glass in the Choir Loft at the back of the Church. Illustrator Robert Eyles approached me in early 2022 to talk about the project which involved a number of improvements to the church. The new glass was to give figurative presence to Saint Margaret and Saint Alphonsus, there was also to be an illustration of the “Pelican in her Piety” an ancient Christian symbol of self sacrifice.

The size of the individual pieces of painted glass are what make this interesting as lead ‘came’ is usually used to separate smaller pieces of painted glass. With modern glass paints we are now able to paint more colours onto glass than was possible in the past so we can now use ‘float glass’ as a base instead of coloured glass in projects such as this one.

An interesting fact worth noting is that the term ‘Stained Glass’, which is now used ubiquitously to cover almost any decorative glass technique, derives from just one technique : ‘silver staining’. The single technique of applying silver nitrate in the form of powder mixed with water and painted onto the glass, turns the glass yellow after firing in the kiln at 630’C. The technique travelled from the east and arrived in Europe when leaded windows were becoming popular in churches in the 14th century and the term Stained Glass stuck. You can see the technique being used in these pictures, the opaque orange is actually a medium in which the silver nitrate compound is suspended, the medium is wiped off the surface of the glass after firing, the silver ions having been absorbed into the glass permanently, changing it to a transparent yellow.

Another interesting addition to this glass design was the use of Verré Eglomisé, a French technique of applying gold or silver leaf to glass, often to make mirrors but in this case to create halo’s. 24ct Gold leaf was also used in other areas of the church so the new windows work well in this sensitively renovated space.

Web link to : Robert Eyles

Web link to : Corpus Christi Church, Oxford

Putting the Sparkle into Death in these Spectacular Windows

stained glass windows made by Rainbow Glass Studios London

Someone, who shall remain anonymous, obsessed with death or at least the symbols that death represents was responsible for a series of commissions we undertook in the 2010’s based on the sculpture ‘For the Love of God‘. In terms of technique these windows represented a new level of detail in the making of stained glass. The background glass was mouth blown in Germany, we then used diamond saws and diamond grinders to make the unusual shapes which were then painted and fired in our gas kiln. The shapes were then put together using copper foil technique, invented by Louis Comfort Tiffany which produces very thin lead lines, in fact the joins are solder, a mix of lead & tin melted onto copper foil wrapping the edges of each piece of glass. With a wider lead border in place the laborious task of applying Swarovski crystals was achieved using a pair of tweezers and UV curing glue, a process which took two weeks to cover both sides of each panel. The crystals first had to be soaked in nitric acid to remove the mirror backing, the smallest crystal measured 0.2mm in diameter, the largest crystals were 6mm, a total of 7000 crystals were needed for each of the 20 adult skull windows – and took ages to make.

The Lovely Butterfly Windows in an Amazing house

stained glass windows made by Rainbow Glass Studios London

Back in 2010 we were approached by an artist company called Science who were renovating a 500 year old mill in the Cotswolds to make some butterflies in stained glass. That initial job led to many others and eventually all the windows in the mill which spread over 4 floors were filled with butterflies. It looked incredible when finished and below are a few images of the work done over the ensuing years. Each butterfly is a unique species and not repeated in any of the 300 + windows. I sourced the images from rare books on lepidoptera and examples were chosen from many different countries some of which I fear may now be extinct. The glass used for the background glass colour were also not repeated so the design had a random quality which meant sourcing glass from Germany, Poland, Russia, USA and France.

The techniques used in making these windows were unique, their refined quality was achieved by dispensing of heavy lead for finely soldered copper foil, diamond saws were used to cut shapes that would otherwise have been impossible using traditional tools. The etching and painting of the glass employed traditional and modern techniques to get the range of texture and colour for these amazing creatures.

A Hymn to the Creator of Light

This stained glass window has a rich and complex history. 

It is called “Hymn to the Creation of Light” and conceived by Professor Raphael Loewe, UCL based on an 11th Century Poem of the same name (by Isaac ben Moses, transcribed below).

In Prof Loewe’s words “The Talmud (Hagigah 12b) describes a scheme of 7 concentric heavens surmounted by the divine Chariot. Isaac ben Moses, who was killed by crusaders in the Rhineland in 1096, made it the theme of a hymn for insertion in the morning thanksgiving the theme of a hymn for insertion in the morning thanksgiving for light (yotser), introducing the-angels’ cry of Holy, Holy, on the Sabbath preceding New Year, traditionally the anniversary of the creation.  No English translation has hitherto appeared. Though composed in Hebrew mainly for the Jewish highbrow, it seems to me to resemble aesthetically a mediaeval stained glass window – a major purpose in which was the instruction of an illiterate laity. The windows of Chartres are in fact less than fifty years younger than Isaac’s date of death, and they prompted me to translate his poem not only into 16th- century English but also into a 12th-century-style window design. The artistic scheme is my own; the execution is that of Michael Hall, of University College London.”

I was approached by the New North London Synagogue in 2015 to finally make the window a reality using traditional stained glass making techniques.  It was all the same a very detailed design to replicate and took a long time as you may appreciate from the photographs. 

We used mainly ‘flashed’ glass which is a mouth blown glass which usually has a clear transparent base glass and a thin layer of colour ‘flashed’ to the surface, in this case blue or red.  The thin surface is then removed to allow painting on the clear areas to create depth to the design.  Once etched, painted and fired in the kiln it was leaded into 2 halves and mounted into a light box on the wall of the Synagogue in 2015.

HYMN TO THE CREATOR OF LIGHT

‘WINDOW OF SEVEN HEAVENS’

by Isaac ben Moses (11th Century)

God in his might did but enunciate

His Name ineffable, and heav’n to be

On high He summon’d, earth did He create

By his mere utterance – the Word that He

Would to his people speak, and have them hear:

Thus heavens were made clear

By seven assays of his breath refin’d,

That they as one should stand, their hosts cohere

In orbits, each reciprocal align’d,

When his Name’s aspirate his mouth did frame,

So be your praise his Name,

Acknowledge Him on his primeval throne

Who dons his mantl’d majesty – shall man

The true tale of his pow’r presume to scan?

Nay, Him becometh silent praise alone:

His wondrous works, his testimonies sure

They tell, who trust secure

In Him: his storied deeds each age shall press

To tell the next, and so resound his

HOLINESS.

Teach then mine intellect the way to go,

And make me understand thine ordinance

Who, cleaving to thy testimonies, know

The measure of the heav’n’s vast expanse

From end to end

whose traverse God decreed

Five hundred years would need,

Leagues which their message speak across the world:

Each heav’n’s altitude repeats that meed,

So, too, the air of each space ‘twixt them twirl’d;

Wherein He fashion’d for the sun a tent.

Come, then, the mighty deeds of God survey,

And win the wisdom to keep well your way,

For in their revolutions they present

Acts so tremendous, that the human mind

To awe must be resign’d.

O ye that fear the Lord, do you express

God’s awe in praise, and so resound his

HOLINESS.

So I recall thy Name, that therein I

May make my boast, and ever hymn that Name

Whose deeds thy perfect knowledge signify,

That win thy dread omnipotence acclaim.

For, scal’d in centuries, a meteyard marks

The seven heavens’ arcs,

Likewise their intervening atmospheres,

Measures to which each year, awaken’d, harks,

To run its fixéd span; the seven tiers

Of earth He link’d with heaven, moving round,

And made thereon abound

Goodness, made greater yet by love – to keep

From lack earth’s structure, his beneficence

Endow’ her order’d scheme with permanence.

His ministering hosts, with nimble leap,

Ubiquitous assert that He is One,

Living, like to Him none:

His Name, exalted high beyond access

In isolation so resounds his

HOLINESS.

Velum, the Drape of heav’n, is specified

The first celestial tract: here did He post

Seven pair’d regiments, the word to bide

Of seven Guardians, each o’er his host

Rais’d on a double throne – they all unite

To praise Him in the height,

To his dread Name Trishagion they sing:

All He commanded them they make their rite,

Like some inheritance – from fire they spring,

Then lapse to singeing fire, such time allow’d

As, in his Name, his Word they may fulfill,

Themselves fulfill’d as they fulfill his will.

Arise, O Lord, O God pursue the proud

Right to the place of reckoning: thy foes

Who, without cause, oppose,

Scatter them: thus shall angel choirs confess,

All mass’d, thy dread, and so resound thy

HOLINESS.

How awesome are his works who fashion’d all

Most wondrously! Raqia next He deck’d

(Which second heaven Firmament we call):

Twelve rising stages did He there erect.

On each flight, angels tremble in their zeal

His lauds broadcast to peal.

There are the storehouses of hail to see

Where snow, and hoarfrost and the like congeal.

Though full of awe those angels stand, yet He,

Their source of awe, Commanders for them made

To have his Word obey’d.

God’s secret those who fear Him may descry,

But who hath strength his cosmic force to tell?

Nay, strive in song those mystic pow’s to spell

That his hosts wield, the Lord to magnify,

Tracing his glory and his awe, that shine

Throughout precepts divine.

His Name He gave creation, to impress

Thereon his glory, and

resound his

HOLINESS.

Shehaqim, subtle Aether•

– store of storm,

Of winds, dense darkness, lightning, thunder, pow’r,

That, hinting at God’s thoughts, may man inform

Lies next, wherein three facing thrones do tow’r,

And figures three beside them glorify

His holy Name on high:

Assign’d their mission, Dread and Terror raise

Their voice in song, all eager to comply.

Zebul, the dazzling Palace rigg’d with stays

Of hurricanes

pair’d vaults are here the site

Where lies transcendent might,

With treasuries of dew: on either hand

In rivers fire entwin’d with waterflows

Such peace celestial doth God impose:

Who, with such angels’ regimental band

Comparison could stand?

What man, like them, his holy Name could bless

In psalmody, and so resound his

HOLINESS?

Makhon, fantastic hoard of jewels display’d

In an Establishment rais’d higher yet

By angels in majestic pomp array’d,

Distinguish’d as a troop, on whom is set

Praise of Him who such splendours did create:

Twelve Princes, chief in state

Three to each quarter of the world –

– are lords

Of the twelve months, their archons designate.

Sixth is the Residence, Ma’on, where hoards

Bursting with honey stand, sign of that sweet

Reward the just shall meet.

Intense the light as angels flap their wings

In flocks that thousand myriads multiply,

With songs they constantly diversify

In rev’rent praise of Him who form’d all things,

Wonders that mark his sovereign process

As Lord of Hosts, and so resound his

HOLINESS.

The might of ‘Araboth illumes its Skies

With light increas’d in incandescent flare

By seven times, and there the Throne doth rise

On mystic beings carried through the air,

Each with four visages

– it seems their freight,

But rather bears their weight:

Beneath, the treasuries of life are stow’d

And storehouses for souls predestinate,

With angel courses, einging in a mode

Of thrice-avouchéd sanctity, each eye

Flashing forth streaks to vie

With lightning. God, demanding faith, allied

To justice, sits in fearsome state, the light

*A robe that swathes his likeness from men’s sight

Who owns no likeness to his sight denied:

His with the scales of justice to enquire

In pages writ in fire,

Whilst, plung’d in purest streams, the angels dress

In whitest fire, and so resound his

HOLINESS.

God’s people, Jacob, for his heritage

And his appointed portion did He take,

With whom, enduring throughout ev’ry age,

His covenant of chiefest laws did make,

Wherein his own especial folk delight

Should find, glimpsing the sight

That-He of his laws’ mystery display’d,

Drawn by that lovingkindness He did plight.

So He the seventh moon’s first day hath made

The season when creation’s crown is brought

To judgment, in his court:

Even as He the one He first did frame

In his own image, though he sinn’d, did yet

Acquit to live, so He this day hath set

To keep for aye his covenant the same

In unforgetting fame,

Firm for his seed, who, judg’d, must nonetheless

Fear Him and quake, and so resound his

HOLINESS. 

Therefore do ye, who seek his mercy, sound

The ram’s horn on this new moon’s festive morn,

To hail Him whom age after age has found

Faithful to keep the promise He hath sworn:

And when, all tremulous, ye stand confus’d

To hear yourselves accus’d,

Resolve in true repentance to forswear

The evil practices that ye have us’d.

For know there is no deed that man shall dare

But he must answer for it, as he may

Before that tribunal, where God alone

Seated upon his pre-existent throne

Holds annual assize, on New Year’s Day,

That comes apace, to bid you haste, intent

To meet it penitent:

And mindful that in Him will ne’er digress

Nor faith nor justice, so resound his

HOLINESS.

The wonderful Craigie Aitchison Chapel Window, Birmingham

Craige Aitchison known for his flat, colourful and economic style of painting designed this window just before his death in 2009. In fact he only designed three church windows one of which I helped with at St Mary the Boltons in London and his last was one which I made and installed in St Martins in the Bullring, Birmingham, 2015.

This spotlight is on the process of making the window, firstly a single panel was a fusion of a clear base glass with broken yellow glass and frit to define the background. Then more frit was applied to add flecks of colour to the background which the client wanted to come through the black paint. It was fired in a glass kiln several times until ready to install into a bespoke metal frame fitted to the inside of the existing float glass glazing attached to the stone tracery. The pre-existing external glazing was already divided by a lead line so the fused glass I made was divided at the same height. The window overlooks the Bullring which is an open public space and can be viewed at night as well as from inside the church when open.

The Amazing Blackpool Library Windows

Blackpool Central Library Windows

In 2011 Rainbow Glass Studios were approached by a London based architect to make eight large windows for the Blackpool Central Library. Each window measured 2m wide x 3m high, and we had 3 months to make them ! This was a very short lead time for such a large and complex project but it was an exciting challenge and we were ready. The designs were generated from the input of Blackpool Library users and brought together by Nick Robertson, it was then over to me to use whatever glass making techniques to enhance the design. My team for this project was Shane Moore, Scott Brown and Zhanna Foglietta. The images below puts the spotlight on of one of those windows, the illuminated train, a feature of the annual Blackpool Illuminations each autumn. This section was made using traditional stained glass method, etching, painting and leading. Here are some pictures showing the process.

In time I’ll be posting more about the various techniques used in making these Blackpool Library windows which included, glass fusing, laser etching, screen printing, kiln casting, verre eglomise to name a few. Looking back I’m amazed at how much we achieved in such a short time but sometimes it takes a tight deadline to focus the mind and get things done. I couldn’t have done it without Shane, Scott & Zhanna.

A Myriad of ways to Cut Glass (part 1)

types of hand held glass cutter

There have been several methods used over the centuries to cut glass. When stained glass was first made it was shaped using a ‘grozing iron’ which was a rod of iron with bent hook at one end or both ends. The hook overlapped the edge of the glass and a small piece was levered off, repeating this motion created the shape required with a nibbled edge all the way around.

The lead calme (came) hid the edge of the glass replacing the roughness with the straight lines of the lead. However, this cutting method was time consuming so to save some time to get the general shape in the first instance a hot tipped iron from a coal furnace was used to draw a heated line on the surface of the glass, the heat made the glass expand in a very localised way and crack was induced by ‘thermal shock’. It was then nibbled (grozed) to size. Later diamond tip cutters were used to get the general shape which were good for straight lines but not so good at going around corners, a solution to this was later found in the wheeled glass cutter we know today.

These two types of cutter (diamond-left, wheel-right), can still be bought today and have notches which can be used for nibbling (grozing).

Today most glass cutters have tungsten carbide wheels which last a long time and come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Here are some examples we use in our classes which aim to make glass cutting easy to use and a comfortable experience, hence the various shapes to fit different sized hands with different pressure points.

various types of glass cutter available today

After scoring the glass with the glass cutter and breaking it, the new edges sometimes need to be lightly grossed to get rid of sharp edges using growing pliers. This is the standard style of grozing pliers available today which are relatively cheap to buy.

In the second part of this topic I’ll go through the best methods of cutting glass including straight edges, curved edges, circles and holes.

grozing pliers

cutting glass, stained glass, how to cut stained glass, stained glass technique, glass cutters, glass tools